Writing academic english pearson longman verlag

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Writing academic english pearson longman verlag

In order to read with comprehension a reader must simultaneously be able to automatically and fluently decode the text and competently understand the language in which the text is written.

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Given this formula, a person's ability to read and comprehend text at high levels depends upon that person's ability to comprehend language at high levels as well as that person's ability to decode written text into a comprehensible linguistic form with adequate ease and fluency.

People lacking in either decoding fluency or general language comprehension skills have been shown to have correspondingly impaired reading comprehension abilities Hoover and Gough, This Simple View of reading has served as the foundation for most cognitive models of reading comprehension see for example Wren, Multiple studies of young children and children with reading difficulties have suggested that most emergent and struggling readers especially at the younger grades have language comprehension skills that exceed what their decoding skills will allow them to read Bertelson, ; Conners and Olson, ; Frith and Snowling, ; Hoover and Gough, ; Juel, Griffith and Gough, ; Perfetti, ; Stanovich, When these children are relieved of the burden of decoding text by having the text read out loud to them by a skilled readertheir comprehension of the material is considerably enhanced.

Put in terms of the simple view of reading, their ability to read and comprehend text is primarily limited by their lack of fluency in decoding the text. Countless other studies have shown that students' ability to fluently, automatically decode text is linked to higher levels of text comprehension Bell and Perfetti, ; Bruck,; Cunningham, Stanovich, and Wilson, ; Perfetti, ; Roth and Beck, ; Stanovich,and students who develop good decoding skills at a young age are typically better at comprehending text in subsequent grades Juel, Arguably, for most struggling readers decoding fluency is the bottleneck preventing reading comprehension.

As Michael Pressley on-line document put it, "Word-recognition skills must be developed to the point of fluency if comprehension benefits are to be maximized. LaBerge and Samuels and Perfetti have extended Betts' insights, arguing convincingly that fluent reading with comprehension is comprised of multiple processes, each demanding a share of finite cognitive resources.

Cognitive resources that must be spent on decoding and identifying individual words in text are resources that are not available to dedicate to the task of examining and understanding the content of the text.

Thus, readers who have developed the ability to decode text fluently and automatically have an more cognitive resources available to focus on the task of comprehension.

But struggling readers who are still expending limited cognitive resources to the task of laboriously decoding and identifying words simply have few cognitive resources available to dedicate to comprehension and meaning see also Samuels, Stanovich described this in his interactive-compensatory model of reading comprehension.

According to Stanovich, there are multiple sources of information available to a reader to assist with reading comprehension. Ideally, word identification is so rapid and fluent that the reader can devote full attention to the message of the text, allowing phonological, orthographic, semantic, and syntactic information to reinforce each other to improve the overall efficiency of the reading comprehension system.

However, when a reader is unable to rapidly identify words in passages of text, that reader must try to examine each word and try to use orthographic, phonological, semantic, and syntactic information for basic word identification.

As the reader shifts cognitive resources to examine these sources of information for basic word identification, the reader has insufficient cognitive resources available for comprehension. Other researchers concur, when word identification becomes sufficiently fluent and automatic, the child does not have to concentrate on the basic identification of words and can concentrate fully on the meaning of the text Chall, ; Dowhower, ; Ehri, ; Ehrlich, Kurtz-Costes, and Loridant, ; Goodman, Haith, Guttentag, and Rao, ; Guttentag, ; Guttentag and Haith, ; Guttentag and Haith, ; Kraut and Smothergill, ; Lyon, ; Rosinski, ; Samuels, Schermer and Reinking, To develop adequate reading fluency that facilitates comprehension processes, children must pass from an emergent stage of logographic reading that involves recognizing words as wholes or recognizing some salient feature associated with the word, through a stage of alphabetic reading involving applying letter-sound knowledge to laboriously sound words out, to a mature orthographic stage that is characterized by very fluent and automatic recognition of familiar words with both regular and irregular spellings as well as rapid, virtually effortless identification of unfamiliar words see Ehri for review.

The path to the third stage for children involves some explicit instruction and guidance in the mechanics of text and the conventions of the English writing system, coupled with hours upon hours of practice reading with feedback and guidance LaBerge and Samuels, ; Perfetti, ; Reitsma, ; Stanovich, Unfortunately, many children experience difficulty along this path, stalling before reaching the fluent orthographic stage, and as a consequence suffer a life-long struggle with reading Stanovich, Providing children with ample opportunity to practice reading appropriate text with feedback and guidance should be the goal of every educator of young children.

Unfortunately, as Allington and Biemiller have pointed out, students in most classrooms typically do not actually have adequate opportunities to practice and refine their reading skills, and struggling readers actually have fewer opportunities to practice than skilled readers.

Biemiller found that the best readers are typically given the most opportunity to practice developing decoding fluency and reading skills in class and that the worst readers -- the ones who arguably need the most practice -- are given the least opportunity to develop decoding and reading skills.

Allington examined classroom practice in detail and found that struggling readers were asked to read as few as 16 words during one week of reading-group instruction while students in the more advanced reading group were reading close to 2, words in the same week. Nagy and Anderson examined the independent reading habits of skilled and struggling readers and found enormous disparity between the number of words that skilled readers read in a year close to 4, versus the number of words that a struggling reader might read in a year less thanThe opportunities to practice and develop fluency are staggering for the skilled readers, and the lack of opportunity to practice and develop fluency is crippling for the struggling reader See V is for Volume.

writing academic english pearson longman verlag

This practice variable is one of the factors that gives rise to what researchers Stanovich, ; Cunningham and Stanovich, ; Walberg and Tsai, have dubbed the Matthew Effect in reading and education See M is for Matthew Effect. In short, children who have advantages in the early grades e.

writing academic english pearson longman verlag

The Matthew Effect has implications in decoding fluency, reading comprehension, background knowledge, vocabulary development, and general academic success.

Advantaged students not only thrive of their own accord, but as the work by Allington and Biemiller indicates, they are also given more attention, support, and opportunities by their teachers than their disadvantaged peers.

It is an insidious paradox in education -- students who need the most support, instruction, and opportunities to practice and develop knowledge and skills are typically given the least. It is a frustrating state of affairs that led Allington to write, "If they don't read much, how they ever gonna get good?

Instead of the strong, effective instructional interventions such as those that have been identified by the National Reading Panel review, namely guided oral reading and repeated reading, struggling students are often relegated to less effective activities such as filling out worksheets.About articles, of which: About full-length scientific pieces, of which 17 were co-authored; 57 of the self-authored pieces were refereed, 45 were invited (in edited volumes, for example).

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From 2nd through 8th grade, there is a fairly reliable formula I use -- multiply the student's age by 12 to get a target CWPM (Correct Words Per Minute) -- so a 10 year old, should be reading about words per minute (give or take 10%).

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