Enjoy the Famous Daily The Greek identity: The link between all Greeks, wherever they may be, has been strengthened in the 8th century by the development of the Greek alphabet. Writing heightens the awareness of a Greek identity - for example through the Homeric epics which begin the great tradition of Greek literature. Religion also is a bond.
Ancient Greek Tyrants Tyrants were a group of individuals who took over many Greek poleis during the uprising of the middle classes in the sixth and seventh centuries BC thereby ousting the aristocratic governments.
However, in Ancient Greek Tyrants were not considered to be negative. Tyrannos In ancient Greece, tyrants were influential opportunists who came to power by securing the support of different factions of a deme. Support for the tyrants came especially from the growing middle class and from the peasants who had no land or were in debt to the wealthy landowners.
Though it is true that they had no legal right to rule yet the people preferred them over kings or aristocracy.
The Greek tyrants stayed in power by using mercenary soldiers from outside of their respective city-state. In Corinth, growing wealth from colonial enterprises, and the wider horizons brought about by the export of wine and oil, coupled with the new experiences of the Eastern Mediterranean brought back by returning mercenary hoplites employed overseas allowed Cypselus, the first tyrant of Corinth in the 7th century BC, to overthrow the aristocratic power of the dominant yet unpopular Bacchiadae, who were killed, executed, driven out and exiled in BC.
Corinth prospered economically under his rule and Cypselus managed to rule without a bodyguard but when he managed to bequeath his position to his son, Periander, whose position was less secure, required a bodyguard of mercenary soldiers personally loyal to himself.
Nevertheless, under Cypselus and Periander, Corinth not only extended but also tightened its control over her colonial enterprises, resulting in the flourishing exports of Corinthian pottery.
However, tyrants rarely succeeded in establishing an untroubled line of succession. In Athens, the inhabitants first gave the title of a tyrant to Peisistratus, a relative of Solonthe Athenian lawgiver, who succeeded in BC, after 2 failed attempts, to install himself as a tyrant. Supported by the prosperity of the peasantry and landowning interests of the plain by virtue of thriving from the rise of olive exports, and his clients from Marathon, he managed to achieve sovereign power.
Through an ambitious program of public works like for instance, by fostering the state sect of Athena, by encouraging the creation of festivals and supporting the Panathenaean games, in which prizes were jars of olive oil, and in his support of the Dionysia which eventually led to the development of Athenian drama, Pisistratus managed to maintain his personal popularity.
Contempt for tyranny characterized this cult movement. What is meant by Demokratia Despite financial help from Persia, in BC, the Peisistratids were barred by a combination of intrigue, banish and Spartan arms.
The anti-tyrannical attitude became all the more prevalent in Athens after BC, when Cleisthenes reformed the political system so as to resemble Demokratia. Oligarchy in ancient Greece Which was the ancient concept participant democracy, unlike the modern representative democracy?
The Thirty Tyrants whom the Spartans inflicted on a defeated Attica in BC, however, cannot be referred to as tyrants in the usual sense as they were in practice an oligarchy.
An Aesymnetes also experienced similar scope of power to the tyrant, such as Pittacus of Mytilene between to BC, and was elected for life or for a specified period by a city-state in a time of crisis; the only difference being that the Aesymnetes was a constitutional office and were comparable to the Roman dictator.
Magistrates in some city-states were also called Aesymnetai. During this time, revolts overthrew many governments in the Aegean world. Chilon, the ambitious and capable ephor of Sparta, built a strong alliance amongst neighboring states by making common cause with these groups seeking to oppose the much disliked tyrannical rule.
By superseding against the tyrants of Sicyon, Corinth, and Athens, Sparta thus came to assume Hellenic leadership prior to the Persian invasions. Simultaneously Persia first started making inroads into Greece, and many tyrants sought Persian help against forces seeking to remove them.
Greek tyranny in the main grew out of the struggle of the popular classes against the aristocracy or against the kings where archaic traditions and mythology sanctioned hereditary rights to rule. Popular coups generally installed tyrants, who often remained popular rulers, at least during the early part of their reigns.
The tyrannies of Sicily came about due to similar causes, but here the threat of Carthaginian attack prolonged tyranny, thereby leading to the rise of military leaders with the people united behind them. Thus, Ancient Greek Tyrants as a concept gained high popularity in the ancient Greek society and were mostly supported by the commoners as they were basically against the kings or aristocratic rule per se.
As a result of this, the conflict between the commoners and the kings reached to such an extent by which the common people actually accepted another person who was not the legal ruler to rule them which ultimately paved the way to tyranny.During the seventh and sixth centuries BC, tyranny was often looked upon as an intermediate stage between narrow oligarchy and more democratic forms of polity.
However, in the late fifth and fourth centuries BC, a new kind of tyrant, the military dictator, arose, specifically in Sicily. The decline fall and dissolution of the Mycenean kingdoms after the middle of the 12th century B.C.
was followed by a period of approximately four centuries, during which a new framework was created and a new era was introduced for Greek culture and history. Archaic Greece (ca.
– BC) After the renaissance of the eighth century, Greece began its classical period, power in the oligarchic government.
So in the seventh century BC, a legislator named and flee, during which time the winners would try to kill as many of the fleeing soldiers. A frequent event in the Greek city-states of the 7th and 6th centuries is the seizing of power by individual members of this class.
These men . During the seventh and sixth centuries BC, tyranny was often looked upon as an intermediate stage between narrow oligarchy and more democratic forms of polity. However, in the late fifth and fourth centuries BC, a new kind of tyrant, the military dictator, arose, specifically in Sicily.
The Atlantic Slave Trade. CCI, CZ, R The development of the slave trade from the fifteenth century to its abolition in the nineteenth century; organization and mechanics, impact on Europe, Africa, and the Americas.