The formula for theoretical calculation of attenuation A is the attenuation due to conductors plus attenuation due to the dielectric: As can readily be seen, attenuation would increase as the frequency increases. In a perfect cable, the pattern of increasing attenuation would be exact and regular. However, on the practical side, this is difficult to achieve and for that reason, tolerances are specified.
They are derived through two principal methods; deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning. Objectives to assess the patient condition by the various methods explained by the nursing theory to identify the needs of the patient to demonstrate an effective communication and interaction with the patient.
Definition Nursing theory is an organized and systematic articulation of a set of statements related to questions in the discipline of nursing. Croyle ] A useful theory makes assumptions about a behavior, health problem, target population, or environment that are: Logical Similar to those used in previous successful programs and Supported by past research in the same area or related ideas.
Importance of nursing theories Nursing theory aims to describe, predict and explain the phenomenon of nursing It should provide the foundations of nursing practice, help to generate further knowledge and indicate in which direction nursing should develop in the future.
Theory is important because it helps us to decide what we know and what we need to know It helps to distinguish what should form the basis of practice by explicitly describing nursing. Later in last century nursing began with a strong emphasis on practice.
Following that came the curriculum era which addressed the questions about what the nursing students should study in order to achieve the required standard of nursing. As more and more nurses began to pursue higher degrees in nursing, there emerged the research era.
Later graduate education and masters education was given much importance. The development of the theory era was a natural outgrowth of the research era.
With an increased number of researches it became obvious that the research without theory produced isolated information; however research and theory produced the nursing sciences. Within the contemporary phase there is an emphasis on theory use and theory based nursing practice and lead to the continued development of the theories.
Bases for hypotheses that can be tested. Increasing the general body of knowledge within the discipline through the research implemented to validate them.
Used by the practitioners to guide and improve their practice. Consistent with other validated theories, laws, and principles but will leave open unanswered questions that need to be investigated. Purposes of theory in practice Assist nurses to describe, explain, and predict everyday experiences.
Serve to guide assessment, intervention, and evaluation of nursing care. Provide a rationale for collecting reliable and valid data about the health status of clients, which are essential for effective decision making and implementation.
Help to establish criteria to measure the quality of nursing care Help build a common nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health professionals.
Ideas are developed and words defined. Enhance autonomy independence and self-governance of nursing by defining its own independent functions. Serve to guide assessment, interventions, and evaluation of nursing care.
Help to describe criteria to measure the quality of nursing care.
Help build a common nursing terminology to use in communicating with other health professionals. Ideas are developed and words are defined.
Provide a general focus for curriculum design Guide curricular decision making. Offer a framework for generating knowledge and new ideas.
Assist in discovering knowledge gaps in the specific field of study. Approaches to developing nursing theory Borrowing conceptual frameworks from other disciplines.
Questions from practicing Nurse about using Nursing theory Practice Does this theory reflect nursing practice as I know it?
Will it support what I believe to be excellent nursing practice? Can this theory be considered in relation to a wide range of nursing situation? Personal Interests, Abilities and Experiences What will it be like to think about nursing theory in nursing practice? Will my work with nursing theory be worth the effort?
Conclusion If theory is expected to benefit practice, it must be developed co- operatively with people who practice nursing. People who do research and develop theories think differently about theory when they perceive the reality of practice.
Theories do not provide the same type of procedural guidelines for practice as do situation- specific principles and procedures or rules. Procedural rules or principles help to standardize nursing practice and can also be useful in achieving minimum goals of quality of care.
Theory is ought to improve the nursing practice. One of the most common ways theory has been organized in practice is in the nursing process of analyzing assessment data.1.
ATTENUATION - Attenuation is loss of power or signal expressed in decibels; it is commonly written and spoken of as dB/ ft.
at a specific frequency. An example is RG 8A/U which has a loss of dB/ ft.
at MHz. 2. FREQUENCY - Frequency is the term designating the number of reverses or cycles in the flow of alternating current (AC) in one second. Subject: Status of Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application (JITTA).
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