Proton radiography essay

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Proton radiography essay

The trapezius muscle asterisk is partially torn. Diagnosis Grade 3 acromioclavicular joint ACJ injury.

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Injuries of the acromioclavicular joint ACJ are common, particularly in males involved in contact sports. The prototypical mechanism of injury to the ACJ involves a direct force produced when a patient falls on the shoulder with the arm adducted to the side.

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Although ACJ injuries occur with any contact sport, participants of hockey, rugby, and football are particularly vulnerable to ACJ injuries1. Relevant Anatomy The ACJ is a diarthrodial joint between the lateral surface of the clavicle and the medial surface of the acromion.

Within the joint is a wedge-shaped fibrocartilaginous disk that projects into the joint from superior and inferior.

Proton radiography essay

The disk is not commonly visualized with routine MR imaging of the shoulder. The ACJ capsule is considered relatively weak with the strongest component at the superoposterior aspect, which is at the attachment site of the trapezius muscle3.

The superior and inferior components of the acromioclavicular ligament complex reinforce the joint at small degrees of distraction4. With routine MR imaging, the ACJ capsule cannot be differentiated from the acromioclavicular ligaments, which insert into the capsule 3a.

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The trapezius and deltoid muscles are dynamic stabilizers and are particularly important when the ligamentous structures are torn. The trapezius has insertions sites at the superior aspects of the spine of the scapula and acromion.

The deltoid muscle has sites of origin from the inferolateral spine of the scapula and acromion5. The superior acromioclavicular ligament blends into the aponeuroses of the deltoid and trapezius muscles6.

A fat-suppressed T2-weighted coronal oblique image demonstrates the normal appearance of the superior and inferior acromioclavicular ligaments arrows.

The acromioclavicular ligaments cannot be differentiated from the ACJ capsule with routine MR imaging.

Proton radiography essay

The coracoclavicular ligament complex is the main stabilizer of the ACJ, particularly at large degrees of separation4. The coracoclavicular ligament complex main function is that of vertical stabilization, which prevents superior and inferior translation of the clavicle7.

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The coracoclavicular ligament complex has two components, the conoid and trapezoid ligaments. The two ligaments anatomically form a V-shape and are separated by fat or a bursa5.

In some patients, the fat separating the ligaments is sparse and the two components are confluent with one another 4a and 5a. The normal coracoclavicular ligaments are best visualized with T1 or proton density weighted images without fat suppression and can be visualized in the coronal and sagittal oblique planes.

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A T1-weighted coronal oblique image demonstrates the classic V shaped appearance of the trapezoid t and conoid c ligaments. In another patient, a coronal oblique T1- weighted image demonstrates a slightly different appearance of the ligaments.

The trapezoid t and conoid c ligaments are more confluent in this variant. The more medial component is the conoid ligament and is named for its triangular shape.

The inferior apex of the conoid ligament is attached to the coracoid process. The conoid ligament spirals vertically and attaches to the conoid tubercle of the clavicle, which is at the junction of the lateral and middle thirds of the clavicle5. The more lateral component of the coracoclavicular ligament complex is the trapezoid ligament, named for its quadrilateral shape.

The inferior segment of the trapezoid ligament is attached to the coracoid process and the superior segment is attached to the inferior aspect of the clavicle.Jul 31,  · An Online Tagalog - English Dictionary Learn Tagalog or Filipino Language for free.

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The modules we outline here provide examples of what you can expect to learn on this degree course based on recent academic teaching. The precise modules available to you in future years may vary depending on staff availability and research interests, new .

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