On April 19,a protest against this decision was read on behalf of 14 free cities of Germany and six Lutheran princes who declared that the majority decision did not bind them because they were not a party to it and that if forced to choose between obedience to God and obedience to Caesar they must choose obedience to God. They appealed either to a general council of all Christendom or to a synod of the whole German nation. Those who made this protest became known to their opponents as Protestants, and gradually the label was applied to all who adhered to the tenets of the Reformationespecially to those living outside Germany.
Memorial Church finished and consecrated in Speyer commemorates the Protestation.
The Protesting Speyer, part of the Luther Monument in Worms Protestant[ edit ] Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Citieswho issued a protest or dissent against the edict of the Diet of Speyerwere the first individuals to be called Protestants.
The term protestant, though initially purely political in nature, later acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.
Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical German: For further details, see the section below.
Gradually, protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area. It was ultimately somewhat taken up by Lutheranseven though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ.
French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed French: Evangelical[ edit ] Direction signs showing ways to two different Protestant churches in the German city of Wiesbaden. The word evangelical German: Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking areasuch as the Evangelical Church in Germany.
The German word evangelisch means Protestant, and is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical usually refers to evangelical Protestant churches, and therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole.
The English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, and then was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, which was derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.
To distinguish the two evangelical groups, others began to refer to the two groups as Evangelical Lutheran and Evangelical Reformed. Nowadays, the word also pertains in the same way to some other mainline groups, for example Evangelical Methodist. As time passed by, the word evangelical was dropped.
Lutherans themselves began to use the term Lutheran in the middle of the 16th century, in order to distinguish themselves from other groups such as the Philippists and Calvinists. Reformational[ edit ] The German word reformatorisch, which roughly translates to English as "reformational" or "reforming", is used as an alternative for evangelisch in German, and is different from English reformed German: Being derived from the word "Reformation", the term emerged around the same time as evangelical and protestant Main principles[ edit ] Key figures of the Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther and John Calvin depicted on a church pulpit.
These reformers emphasised preaching and made it a centerpiece of worship. The Bible translated into vernacular by Martin Luther. The supreme authority of scripture is a fundamental principle of Protestantism. Various experts on the subject tried to determine what makes a Christian denomination a part of Protestantism.
A common consensus approved by most of them is that if a Christian denomination is to be considered Protestant, it must acknowledge the following three fundamental principles of Protestantism. Sola Scriptura The belief, emphasized by Luther, in the Bible as the highest source of authority for the church.
The early churches of the Reformation believed in a critical, yet serious, reading of scripture and holding the Bible as a source of authority higher than that of church tradition. The many abuses that had occurred in the Western Church before the Protestant Reformation led the Reformers to reject much of its tradition, though some would maintain tradition has been maintained and reorganized in the liturgy and in the confessions of the Protestant churches of the Reformation.
In the early 20th century, a less critical reading of the Bible developed in the United States, leading to a "fundamentalist" reading of Scripture. Christian fundamentalists read the Bible as the "inerrant, infallible" Word of God, as do the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican and Lutheran churches, but interpret it in a literalist fashion without using the historical critical method.
Sola Fide The belief that believers are justifiedor pardoned for sin, solely on condition of faith in Christ rather than a combination of faith and good works.
For Protestants, good works are a necessary consequence rather than cause of justification. It is opposed to the hierarchical system which puts the essence and authority of the Church in an exclusive priesthood, and makes ordained priests the necessary mediators between God and the people.
Calvin referred to the universal priesthood as an expression of the relation between the believer and his God, including the freedom of a Christian to come to God through Christ without human mediation.FRANCE IN THE 16th AND 17th CENTURIES [Partly edited and reorganized, 1/17/04 and 9/23/ Note that this is frustrating material for me because I have to .
Protestant Immigration to Louisiana. Question. According to historian Jon Butler, Huguenots died out as a distinct religious and ethnic group during the 18th century. In the five years following the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by Louis XIV in , the Huguenot population in France declined from 1 million to less than 75,, most of.
Throughout the 18th century the word Protestant was still defined in relation to the 16th-century Reformation. early in the 16th century, Europe was ripe for a reform of the church.
Martin E. Marty The continental Reformation: Germany, Switzerland, and France The role of Luther.
the Edict of Nantes, in It gave them liberty of. Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
Ever since, Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree. The Edict of Nantes () The Edict of Nantes is one of the great European acts of religious tolerance at a time in which tolerance was not the ideal virtue that we view it today.
Henry issued the Edict of Nantes granting almost complete religious freedom to the Protestants. The Edict of Nantes was signed by Henry IV (). Artistic movement in 17th-century Europe that used dramatic effects to arouse emotions and reflected 17th-century search for power Edict of Fontainebleau Louis XIV's edict that revoked Edict of Nantes and destroyed Protestant churches and schools.