Image of European Parliament, June We are today witnessing the advance of nationalist, xenophobic and extreme-right groups in every successive European election. They have even managed to enter government, for instance, in Italy.
Substantive Representation  Formalistic views of representation identify political representation with the formal procedures e. Pitkin distinguishes two formalistic views on political representation - the authorization and Political representation views.
Under the authorization view, a representative is an individual who has been authorized to act on the behalf of another or a group of others. Theorists who take the accountability view argue that a representative is an individual who will be held to account.
The descriptive and symbolic views of political representation according to Pitkin describe the ways in which political representatives "stand for" the people they represent.
Descriptive representatives "stand for" to the extent that they resemble, in their descriptive characteristics e. Hence Pitkin proposes a substantive view of representation.
In this view of political representation, representation is defined as substantive "acting for", by representatives, the interests of the people they represent.
Mansbridge argues that each of these views provides an account of both how democratic political representatives "act for" the people they represent and the normative criteria for assessing the actions of representatives.
For Mansbridge, promissory representation, preoccupied with how representatives are chosen authorized and held to account through elections, is the traditional view of democratic political representation.
Anticipatory, surrogate and gyroscopic representation, on the other hand, are more modern views that have emerged from the work of empirical political scientists. Anticipatory representatives take actions that they believe voters the represented will reward in the next election.
Surrogate representation occurs when representatives "act for" the interest of people outside their constituencies. Finally, in gyroscopic representation, representatives use their own judgements to determine how and for what they should act for on behalf of the people they represent.
This is not to say that Political representation argues that democratic political representatives can be representatives without being elected or be said to represent the represented without substantively acting for their interests, they do.
Rather, Rehfeld only seeks to point out that political representation is not limited to the democratic case. The rules by which a relevant audience judges whether or not a person is a representative can be either democratic or non-democratic.
In a case where the selection agentrelevant audience and the represented are the same and the rules of judgment are democratic e.
Burke[ edit ] British politician Edmund Burke in his Speech to the Electors at Bristol at the Conclusion of the Poll was noted for his articulation of the principles of representation against the notion that elected officials should be delegates who exactly mirror the opinions of the electorate: It ought to be the happiness and glory of a representative to live in the strictest union, the closest correspondence, and the most unreserved communication with his constituents.
Their wishes ought to have great weight with him; their opinion, high respect; their business, unremitting attention. It is his duty to sacrifice his repose, his pleasures, his satisfactions, to theirs; and above all, ever, and in all cases, to prefer their interest to his own.
But his unbiased opinion, his mature judgment, his enlightened conscience, he ought not to sacrifice to you, to any man, or to any set of men living.
These he does not derive from your pleasure; no, nor from the law and the constitution. They are a trust from Providence, for the abuse of which he is deeply answerable. Your representative owes you, not his industry only, but his judgment; and he betrays, instead of serving you, if he sacrifices it to your opinion.
These interests are largely economic or associated with particular localities whose livelihood they characterize, in his over-all prosperity they involve.
This is not always practical for historical and current political reasons, and sometimes is impractical purely on the basis of logistics, as in regions where travel is difficult and distances are long[ citation needed ].
The shortened term "rep-by-pop" is used in Britain but is relatively uncommon in U. S[ citation needed ] Historically rep-by-pop is the alternative to rep-by-area. However, in the colonial countries, the geographic realities made a necessity of low-population electoral districts in order to give meaningful representation to remote communities, and only in urban and suburban areas has there been any success with applying rep-by-pop more or less evenly[ citation needed ] In the United States and other democracies, typically the lower house of a bicameral two-chamber system is based on population—more or less—while the upper House is based on area.
Or, as it might be put in the United Kingdom, on title to land, as was originally the case with the old pre-Reforms House of Lords. Representation by area[ edit ] The principle of rep-by-pop, when brought in and promoted publicly, removed many archaic seats in the British House of Commons although some northern and rural counties necessarily still have variably lower populations than most urban ridings.
Former British colonies like Canada and Australia also have rural and wilderness areas spanning tens of thousands of square miles, with fewer voters in them than a tiny urban-core riding. In the most extreme case, one riding of the Canadian parliament covers more than 2 million square kilometresNunavutyet has less than one third the average number of voters for a riding, with a population of about 30, Making the riding larger would be difficult for the elected member, as well as for campaigning and also unfair to remotely rural constituents, whose concerns are radically different from those of the medium-sized towns that typically dominate the electorate in such ridings.Contemporary democracies are representative democracies.
The aim of the seminar is to review the state of theory and empirical practice in one of the most important aspects of contemporary democracies – political representation, responsiveness and accountability.
Political Representation. Although in the early twenty-first century representative government is synonymous with democracy, the concept of political representation arose separately from the idea of the rule of the people. Broadly political representation refers to an arrangement whereby one is enabled to speak and act with authority in the behalf of some other.
Stacker takes a look at countries where political representation of women is the lowest. Political representation research publications from the Center for Women in Politics and Public Policy at the University of Massachusetts Boston.
Political representation occurs when political actors speak, advocate, symbolize, and act on the behalf of others in the political arena.
In short, political representation is a kind of political assistance. This seemingly straightforward definition, however, is not adequate as it stands. Political Representation The census provides a snapshot of the population change that has occurred in the last 10 years to make sure each district is properly represented.
When Georgians participate in the census, they're ensuring accurate representation for their district at both the state and federal level.