There are so many critical factors and variables that might have a positive, negative, or neutral association with project performance; and not everyone agrees on which factors matter most. In the recent annual review of Results and Performance of the World Bank Group RAP17we conducted a structured literature review to find out which factors associated with better and worse project outcomes have garnered the most consensus among researchers. Starting with sources, we narrowed the list down to 32 studies that included an empirical analysis of World Bank project outcomes and were published either by the World Bank or a peer-reviewed journal. There was considerable variation in the methodologies of the studies included, and while this has advantages in maximizing the kinds of factors that can be captured in this review, it also reduces the validity of comparing across studies.
Bibliography Definition A literature review surveys books, scholarly articles, and any other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory, and by so doing, provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of these works in relation to the research problem being investigated.
Literature reviews are designed to provide an overview of sources you have explored while researching a particular topic and Literature review on the factors that demonstrate to your readers how your research fits within a larger field of study.
Conducting Research Literature Reviews: From the Internet to Paper. Importance of a Good Literature Review A literature review may consist of simply a summary of key sources, but in the social sciences, a literature review usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often within specific conceptual categories.
A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how you are planning to investigate a research problem.
The analytical features of a literature review might: Give a new interpretation of old material or combine new with old interpretations, Trace the intellectual progression of the field, including major debates, Depending on the situation, evaluate the sources and advise the reader on the most pertinent or relevant research, or Usually in the conclusion of a literature review, identify where gaps exist in how a problem has been researched to date.
The purpose of a literature review is to: Place each work in the context of its contribution to understanding the research problem being studied.
Describe the relationship of each work to the others under consideration. Identify new ways to interpret prior research. Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature. Resolve conflicts amongst seemingly contradictory previous studies.
Identify areas of prior scholarship to prevent duplication of effort. Point the way in fulfilling a need for additional research. Locate your own research within the context of existing literature [very important]. Sage, ; Hart, Chris. Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination.
Sage Publications, ; Jesson, Jill. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional and Systematic Techniques. Political Science and Politics 39 January A Step-by-Step Guide for Students. Types of Literature Reviews It is important to think of knowledge in a given field as consisting of three layers.
First, there are the primary studies that researchers conduct and publish. Second are the reviews of those studies that summarize and offer new interpretations built from and often extending beyond the primary studies.
Third, there are the perceptions, conclusions, opinion, and interpretations that are shared informally that become part of the lore of field. In composing a literature review, it is important to note that it is often this third layer of knowledge that is cited as "true" even though it often has only a loose relationship to the primary studies and secondary literature reviews.
Given this, while literature reviews are designed to provide an overview and synthesis of pertinent sources you have explored, there are a number of approaches you could adopt depending upon the type of analysis underpinning your study.
Types of Literature Reviews Argumentative Review This form examines literature selectively in order to support or refute an argument, deeply imbedded assumption, or philosophical problem already established in the literature.
Jun 18, · Early initiation of breastfeeding: a systematic literature review of factors and barriers in South Asia Indu K. Sharma and Abbey Byrne Nossal Institute for Global Health, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC Australia. Uncovering Factors of Project Success: A Literature Review Which factors associated with better and worse World Bank project outcomes have garnered the most consensus among researchers? Use the tool created for this review to explore these factors. Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.
The purpose is to develop a body of literature that establishes a contrarian viewpoint. Given the value-laden nature of some social science research [e. However, note that they can also introduce problems of bias when they are used to make summary claims of the sort found in systematic reviews [see below].
Integrative Review Considered a form of research that reviews, critiques, and synthesizes representative literature on a topic in an integrated way such that new frameworks and perspectives on the topic are generated.
The body of literature includes all studies that address related or identical hypotheses or research problems. A well-done integrative review meets the same standards as primary research in regard to clarity, rigor, and replication.
This is the most common form of review in the social sciences. Historical Review Few things rest in isolation from historical precedent.
Historical literature reviews focus on examining research throughout a period of time, often starting with the first time an issue, concept, theory, phenomena emerged in the literature, then tracing its evolution within the scholarship of a discipline.
The purpose is to place research in a historical context to show familiarity with state-of-the-art developments and to identify the likely directions for future research. Methodological Review A review does not always focus on what someone said [findings], but how they came about saying what they say [method of analysis].Research Questions for Literature Reviews Why a Literature Review?
Notice that the question is fairly general; it does not ask what factors affect bullying on your school's playground.
No such research exists. You will have to build your local solution (and then not of a literature review or research design, which require presentation. Which factors associated with better and worse World Bank project outcomes have garnered the most consensus among researchers?
Use the tool created for this review to explore these factors. What factors should you consider then, to conduct and write a high quality literature review for the research paper?
Number of sources Different levels of study have different demands, find out from your supervisor how many sources you should use in case it is not specified.
This literature review examines the challenges faced by Aboriginal youth in completing their education and the factors that impede or foster their successful transition from school to work. However, there isn’t a work on literature review that organizes all these works in a systematic way that classifies the success factors into categories, that identifies the stages of development of the IT startup and that determines the factors that influence each stage of the life cycle.
Aug 09, · Factors that influence beach visitors' use of bathing waters. This part of the literature review responds to SRQ what importance do people put on information (signs and signage) about bathing water quality as a factor influencing beach visit decisions?
(see Table ).