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Lateral elbow pain tennis elbow. Background Acupuncture as a therapeutic intervention is widely practiced in the United States. The general theory of acupuncture is based on the premise that there are patterns of energy flow Qi through the body that are essential for health.
Disruptions of this flow are believed to be responsible for disease. Acupuncture may correct imbalances of flow at identifiable points close to the skin. Findings from basic research have begun to elucidate the mechanisms of action of acupuncture, including the release of opioids and other peptides in the central nervous system and the periphery and changes in neuroendocrine function.
While there have been many studies of its potential usefulness, the vast majority of papers studying acupuncture in the biomedical literature consist of case reports, case series, or intervention studies.
One of the difficulties with drawing conclusions from the existing literature is that the term acupuncture is used to describe a variety of treatments that differ in many important aspects according to level of effect e. Many of these studies provide equivocal results because of design, sample size, and other factors.
The issue is further complicated by inherent difficulties in the use of appropriate controls, such as placebos and sham acupuncture groups, and by absence of studies comparing acupuncture with conventional biomedical treatments.
Some factors needing investigation include frequency, number, and duration of treatments, depth of puncture, number of acupuncture points used, combination with other therapies, sample size, setting, blinding factors, and needle size.
Be that as it may, promising results have emerged on the efficacy of acupuncture in adult post-operative and chemotherapy nausea and vomiting and in postoperative dental pain. There is insufficient evidence of the efficacy of acupuncture as a treatment for fibromyalgia.
Patients were randomly allocated to receive up to 12 acupuncture treatments over 3 months or to a control intervention offering usual care. Headache score, SF health status, and use of medication were assessed at baseline, 3, and 12 months.
Use of resources was assessed every 3 months. Headache score at 12 months, the primary end point, was lower in the acupuncture group The adjusted difference between means is 4. This result is robust to sensitivity analysis incorporating imputation for missing data.
Patients in the acupuncture group experienced the equivalent of 22 fewer days of headache per year 8 to SF data favored acupuncture, although differences reached significance only for physical role functioning, energy, and change in health.
The authors concluded that acupuncture leads to persisting, clinically relevant benefits for primary care patients with chronic headache, particularly migraine.
The results of the study by Vickers et al are in agreement with recent findings of Allais et al who reported that acupuncture is effective in reducing the frequency of migraine attacks as well as those by Linde et al who reported that acupuncture was more effective than a placebo injection in the early treatment of an acute migraine attack.
Facco and colleagues examined the effectiveness of a true acupuncture treatment according to traditional Chinese medicine TCM in migraine without aura, comparing it to a standard mock acupuncture protocol, an accurate mock acupuncture healing ritual, and untreated controls.
A prospective, randomized, controlled study was performed in patients suffering from migraine without aura, assessed according to the ICD classification. Patients were divided into the following 4 groups: Rizatriptan intake was also checked in all groups of patients at T0, T1, and T2.
A total of patients completed the study 33 dropouts: Before treatment the MI T 0 was moderate-to-severe with no significant inter-group differences. The intake of rizatriptan paralleled the MI in all groups. The authors concluded that TA was the only treatment able to provide a steady outcome improvement in comparison to the use of only rizatriptan, while RMA showed a transient placebo effect at T1.
There is insufficient evidence for acupuncture as a treatment for insomnia. Sok and colleagues stated that further investigation, using a randomized clinical trial design, is necessary to determine the effectiveness of acupuncture for the treatment of insomnia.
Furthermore, additional work is also needed to promote the long-term therapeutic effects of acupuncture and to compare it with other therapies for insomnia. There is limited and insufficient evidence for acupuncture for treatment of dysmenorrhea, infertility and other women's reproductive indications.
White performed a review of controlled studies of acupuncture for women's reproductive health care. The author concluded that in view of the small number of studies and their variable quality, doubt remains about the effectiveness of acupuncture for gynecological conditions.
Acupuncture appears promising for dysmenorrhea and infertility, and further studies are justified. There is insufficient evidence for acupuncture to improve outcomes of in vitro fertilization. In a Cochrane review, Cheong et al determined the effectiveness of acupuncture in the outcomes of assisted reproductive treatment ART.
Randomized controlled trials RCTs of acupuncture for couples who were undergoing ART comparing acupuncture treatment alone or acupuncture with concurrent ART versus no treatment, placebo or sham acupuncture plus ART for the treatment of primary and secondary infertility were selected.A medical sales representative's cover letter has to make a positive impact on the hiring manager in order to get your profile noticed.
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