The objective is to apply anthropological knowledge of human behavior to everyday situations and problems. The goal is to analyze the cultural and subsistence patterns of prehistoric humans in order to relate these patterns to contemporary human societies and populations. Discussion includes archaeological theories and methods, subsistence strategies, and the application of archaeology to community, regional and global issues and concerns.
Social Movements Theories of Deviance Deviance is any behavior that violates social norms, and is usually of sufficient severity to warrant disapproval from the majority of society.
The sociological discipline that deals with crime behavior that violates laws is criminology also known as criminal justice.
People who engage in deviant behavior are referred to as deviants. The concept of deviance is complex because norms vary considerably across groups, times, and places. In other words, what one group may consider acceptable, another may consider deviant.
For example, in some parts of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Muslim Africa, women are circumcised. In America, the thought of female circumcision, or female genital mutilation as it is known in the United States, is unthinkable; female genital mutilation, usually done in unsanitary conditions that often lead to infections, is done as a blatantly oppressive tactic to prevent women from having sexual pleasure.
A number of theories related to deviance and criminology have emerged within the past 50 years or so. Differential-association theory Edwin Sutherland coined the phrase differential association to address the issue of how people learn deviance. According to this theory, the environment plays a major role in deciding which norms people learn to violate.
Specifically, people within a particular reference group provide norms of conformity and deviance, and thus heavily influence the way other people look at the world, including how they react.
In short, people learn criminal behavior, like other behaviors, from their interactions with others, especially in intimate groups. For example, juvenile gangs provide an environment in which young people learn to become criminals.
These gangs define themselves as countercultural and glorify violence, retaliation, and crime as means to achieving social status. Gang members learn to be deviant as they embrace and conform to their gang's norms.
International Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology, Vol. 2, No. 2, April behavior into four quadrants labeled: production deviance. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: DEVIANCE Viel Elysse N. Cansino Concept: DEVIANCE is the outcome of social strains due to the way the society is structured. CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: DEVIANCE Viel Elysse N. Cansino Concept: DEVIANCE is the outcome of social strains due to the way the society is structured. For some people, the strain becomes overwhelming to the point where they do deviance as a way to manage the strain.
People learn deviance from the people with whom they associate. Anomie theory Anomie refers to the confusion that arises when social norms conflict or don't even exist.
In the s, Robert Merton used the term to describe the differences between socially accepted goals and the availability of means to achieve those goals.
Merton stressed, for instance, that attaining wealth is a major goal of Americans, but not all Americans possess the means to do this, especially members of minority and disadvantaged groups. The theory is also sociological in its emphasis on the role of social forces in creating deviance. On the negative side, anomie theory has been criticized for its generality.
Critics note the theory's lack of statements concerning the process of learning deviance, including the internal motivators for deviance. Like differential association theory, anomie theory does not lend itself to precise scientific study.
Control theory According to Walter Reckless's control theory, both inner and outer controls work against deviant tendencies. People may want—at least some of the time—to act in deviant ways, but most do not.
They have various restraints:CONCEPTUAL ANALYSIS OF SOCIAL BEHAVIOR: DEVIANCE Viel Elysse N. Cansino Concept: DEVIANCE is the outcome of social strains due to the way the society is structured.
For some people, the strain becomes overwhelming to the point where they do deviance as a way to manage the strain. Analysis reveals conceptual and thematic differences in the language employed by authors applying positive deviance in a practical context compared with articles of a more theoretical nature.
New directions are proposed for exploring the use and merit of the positive deviance concept into new areas of . *a theory of deviance that assumes the social process by which an individual comes to be labeled a deviant contributes to causing more of the deviant behavior secondary deviance *term used in labeling theory to refer to the deviant behavior that emerges as a result of a person being labeled as deviant.
Free social structure papers, essays, and research papers. When characteristics of a given concept appear repeatedly in literature, these are determined to be the defining attributes of the concept.3 Based on the characteristics found to be most frequently associated with positive deviance as a behavior in the literature, positive deviance * is intentional and honorable.
Counterproductive Work Behavior (CWB) in Response to Job Stressors and Organizational Justice: Some Mediator and Moderator Tests for Autonomy and Emotions.