Tsarist government The Holy Synod inwhich led the church and was a government department. It was one of the few remaining autocracies: The tsar was bound by only two restrictions: In all other matters, the tsar and his will were considered supreme.
By way of an introduction The stages of the revolution part 1 By Francois Vercammen During Februaryin the midst of war, the autocratic Tsarist regime in Russia was overthrown by mass demonstrations.
Eight months later, in October, the working class — supported by a popular uprising in the whole country — conquered political power and began to construct a new, socialist society. The 20th century was transformed. As predicted by some, and feared by others, the World War of gave birth to revolution.
The crisis of the regime The revolution was the final climax to an endemic crisis that shook Russian society during the second half of the 19th century.
A great military power in Europe but also an imposing force in Asiait was a society trapped in economic backwardness whereas further West the capitalist mode of production triumphed. The Tsarist state had tried to use its power to bring about certain changes: The crisis exploded in its totality for the first time in That revolution failed, but the reversal was only partial.
In the declaration of war put a stop to a new wave of revolutionary strikes. Three years later history took its revenge: Crisis for the nationalities: The revolution of February Intolerable poverty during winter of sparked off the revolution in February.
Starting with textile workers, the strike extended rapidly and spontaneously to the entire proletariat of Petrograd — the capital of Russia at the time. In a few days the mass strike had been transformed into an insurrection, with the military garrison coming over to the revolution.
On the maelstrom of the insurrection, workers found a way to organize themselves; through the formation of soviets councils — in the factories, in their neighbourhoods, and in a city-wide level — as well as through a red guard revolutionary militia. Even at the front, the soldiers elected their own committees and … their officers!
Later, during the summer ofthe peasantry, in its turn, joined in. Thus the entire social base of the regime was eliminated.
Dual power Between the end of February and the end of OctoberRussia lived through a very specific kind of revolutionary situation: But it covered the factories and cities with a dense network of councils which quickly expanded to include the army and, finally, the countryside.
In essence a counter-power, these soviets — more and more numerous, better and better coordinated — threatened at any moment to overthrow the bourgeoisie. Two of these soviet structures played a decisive role: These councils, resulting from the urgent needs of the masses, also reflected their level of consciousness and their political prejudices.
In order for the task of taking power to become clearly posed it was necessary for a revolutionary party to put it forward, to make it a priority. The organization capable of doing this was the Bolshevik party. But that group remained a minority among the workers and in the soviets until September Thus, the history of dual power is also the history of a struggle between different political parties — representing the workers and popular movements — over this decisive question of the revolution: The changing relationship of forces: February — June At the outset, different reformist currents Mensheviks, Social-Revolutionaries, workerists dominated these structures of self-organization.
They led the soviets and, very quickly by May were also taking part in the provisional bourgeois government. They attempted to contain the pressure of the masses through the politics of class collaboration.
The evolution of the situation within the workers councils during this period of dual power is, from that time forward, tightly linked to an intensifying class struggle.
Petersburg — had delegates from the capital, from local councils, and 46 from the army. It agreed to support the bourgeois-liberal government of Prince Lvov demanding, however, to exercise control over that government! At the end of April, the government again tried to promote a pro-war policy, provoking large demonstrations and a strong strike movement for immediate economic demands.
The pendulum was swinging to the left. Paradoxically, at the top echelons of the state and on the level of the national soviet structures, this leftward shift first translated itself — to the detriment of the liberals — by reinforcing the position of the reformists Mensheviks, Social-Revolutionaries.
At the beginning of June, the real first congress of workers and soldiers deputies met. With its elected delegates of which were properly mandated and had the right to vote it represented some 20 million people. Elected on the basis of universal suffrage, the congress constituted the most representative and democratic body that Russia had ever known.
Based on a deepgoing political pluralism, it debated, over three weeks Juneall of the vital questions facing the population. The delegates included SRs Social-RevolutionariesMensheviks, Bolsheviks, and 73 unaffiliated individuals, with the rest divided between different small socialist groups.
After a short time it combined forces with the Executive Committee of the All-Russian Peasant Congress, which was held separately, and where the SRs held an absolute monopoly. The coalition government, very popular at the outset, rapidly discredited itself.Tsarist autocracy Pipes is another influential historian among non-specialists who holds the position about the distinctness of Russian history and political system, American Cold War analysts, including George Kennan, linked the Soviet government's autocratic rule to Tatar influences during its history, and biographies of Russian.
By way of an introduction The stages of the revolution (part 1) By Francois Vercammen During February , in the midst of war, the autocratic Tsarist regime in Russia was overthrown by mass demonstrations. Eight months later, in October, Read more ›. The History of Russia begins with that of the East Slavs and the Finno-Ugric peoples.
The war-weariness, and discontent with the autocratic system of government, The Tsarist system was completely overthrown in February Rabinowitch argues. The Tsarist regime, Background, The Russian Revolution, SOSE: History, Year 9, NSW Introduction As many countries in Europe industrialised their economy and liberalised their political structure, Russia was bound by the conservative nature of the Tsarist regime.
. Introduction ↑. The story of Russia's effort to wage war between and is generally well-known. According to the standard narrative, the Empire of the Tsars entered the First World War in August among the least technologically developed and, thus, most "backward" of the major belligerents, fated to succumb to the German Empire – its more advanced and, thus, more "modern" major.
The way in which the different classes in society are being bound in place by governmental decree.
The degree to which the government plays an active role in controlling society. The concern over government tax revenues The degree to which there is evidence of an elaborate bureaucratic system .